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    WASHINGTON, June 2 (Xinhua) -- Dogs may have been domesticated not once, as widely believed, but twice, once in Europe and once in Central Asia or China, a major study said Thursday.

    Scientists have debated where domestic dogs come from for a very long time. Some argued that humans first domesticated wolves in Europe, while others claimed this happened in Central Asia or China.

    All these claims, according to the new study published in the U.S. journal Science, may be right.

    The study, supported by funding from the European Research Council and Britain's Natural Environment Research Council, said that man's best friend may have emerged independently from two separate, possibly now extinct, wolf populations that lived on opposite sides of the Eurasian continent.

    The team, led by the University of Oxford and including French researchers based in Lyon and at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, made the conclusion after reconstructing the evolutionary history of dogs.

    They first sequenced the genome of a 4,800-year-old medium-sized dog from bone excavated at the Neolithic Passage Tomb of Newgrange, Ireland.

    Then, they obtained mitochondrial DNA from 59 ancient dogs living between 14,000 to 3,000 years ago and compared them with the genetic signatures of more than 2,500 previously studied modern dogs.

    Their analyses revealed a genetic separation between modern dog populations currently living in East Asia and Europe, one they said occurred several thousand years after the first known appearance of dogs in Europe.

    The new genetic evidence also showed a population decline in Europe that appeared to have mostly replaced the earliest domestic dog population there, which supported the evidence that there was a later arrival of dogs from elsewhere.

    Lastly, a review of the archaeological record showed that early dogs appeared in both the East and West more than 12,000 years ago, but in Central Asia no earlier than 8,000 years ago.

    Combined, these new findings led the researchers to believe that dogs were first domesticated from geographically separated wolf populations on opposite sides of the Eurasian continent.

    At some point after their domestication, the eastern dogs dispersed with migrating humans into Europe where they mixed with and mostly replaced the earliest European dogs.

    Most dogs today are a mixture of both Eastern and Western dogs -- one reason why previous genetic studies have been difficult to interpret, they said.

    The international project is currently analyzing thousands of ancient dogs and wolves to test this new perspective, and to establish the timing and location of the origins of our oldest pet.

    ""Animal domestication is a rare thing and a lot of evidence is required to overturn the assumption that it happened just once in any species,"" senior author Greger Larson, professor of the Oxford University, said in a statement.

    ""Our ancient DNA evidence, combined with the archaeological record of early dogs, suggests that we need to reconsider the number of times dogs were domesticated independently,"" he said.

    ""Maybe the reason there hasn't yet been a consensus about where dogs were domesticated is because everyone has been a little bit right,"" he added. Enditem

    " This photo provided by Nasdaq shows Nasdaq Tower in New York's Times Square Adam Shaheen Youth Jersey , as the display shows that the Dow Jones industrial average crossed the 20,000 mark for the first time, Wednesday, Jan. 25, 2017. (Rohini ShahriarNasdaq via AP)

    With the Dow Jones industrials above 20,000, it's natural to ask what's going on and what, if anything, investors should do. Here are some answers to common questions that people have about the stock market.

    Q. Can the stock market keep going higher?

    A. The Dow has more than tripled from its low point during the recession seven years ago. Some experts have been surprised the market has continued to rise so much in recent months, particularly since corporate profits have been mostly shrinking over the last year and a half, but that doesn't mean the market can't go any higher. The market is now in the second-longest bull run since World War II, following the rally of 1990-2002.

    The election of Donald Trump in November has made investors more optimistic about growth in the economy and the profit potential for industries like banking and energy, which are expected to benefit from his drive to roll back regulations, lower taxes and rev up economic growth.

    But as financial advisers will tell you, it's best to base your investing decisions on your own needs and financial plans, not on what the market is doing any given moment. Don't load up on stocks if you're getting ready to retire, for example, since they're more vulnerable to short-term swings than bonds are. If you're younger and willing to tolerate the risks that come with owning stocks, they're generally considered a very good long-term investment.

    Q. If the market keeps setting record highs, does that mean stocks are getting expensive?

    A. By some measures, yes. The long drive up in the market has sent a key barometer of how expensive stocks are above its long-term average.

    A stock's price is meant to reflect how much investors expect a company to earn in profits. If those profits grow, you'd expect the stock to rise. Sometimes, though, stock prices rise even if earnings don't, and that's when stocks start to look expensive relative to their historical norms.

    One widely used measure of value divides the price of the Standard & Poor's 500 index by the annual earnings at those companies over 10 years, adjusted for inflation. That number is currently 28.7, a bit above where it was 10 years ago but far below where it was prior to the dot-com implosion of 2000-2002. Since World War II, the average ratio. Cheap Jerseys   Cheap Custom Jerseys   Cheap Jerseys   Cheap Jerseys Free Shipping   Cheap Sports Jerseys   Cheap New NHL Jerseys   Cheap New NFL Jerseys   Cheap Custom MLB Jerseys   Cheap College Baseball Jerseys   Cheap Basketball Jerseys  

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